It is a mistake to consider the cyst as a non-serious or even non-dangerous disease: if you do not go to the dentist in time, the cyst may develop into a malignancy, lead to loss of teeth, the destruction of bone tissues of the jaw.
A dental cyst is usually understood as a benign mass in the form of a cavity with purulent or serous fluid caused by inflammatory processes. At the initial stages, the size of such a capsule is small - 1-3 mm, but over time it can grow to 25-30 mm.
Causes of dental cysts
As a rule, a cyst occurs in the root zone of "dead" teeth, as well as in the area of teething or tooth development. An important condition is the presence of a bacterial environment. It is the infection of periodontal tissues that most often precedes the appearance of cystic lesions.
Causes of the development of the disease can be:
- Dental trauma from falls, blows, sports or other injuries;
- Substandard treatment;
- Advanced dental caries (in which the disease has penetrated deep into the internal tissues);
- Use of non-sterile endodontic instruments;
- Infection through the general bloodstream against the background of infectious diseases of other organs, as well as a general weakening of the immune system;
- Chronic inflammatory processes under dentures;
- Development of chronic periodontitis;
- Complications of a chronic form of maxillitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis and other diseases of the nasopharynx;
- Problematic eruption of wisdom teeth;
- Violation of oral hygiene rules.
Treatment methods for dental cysts
A cyst cannot be cured at home or with the help of traditional medicine. If the first symptoms appear, it means that the mass has already formed and continues to grow. In this case you should immediately seek medical help.
1. Therapeutic treatment
The conservative method is most effective in the early stages of the disease. Such therapy is quite complicated and takes a long time, but in some situations it is quite justified.
- First the dentist works with the root canals: they must be opened (unsealed) and sterilized. It is mandatory to treat with antiseptic to avoid infection from purulent contents of the cyst.
- Using special tools, medications are injected behind the apex of the root. A temporary filling of antiseptic paste is placed in the root canals for the time of their action. This step can be repeated several times until the cyst is completely dissolved.
- Radiographs are taken regularly to assess the dynamics of therapy. If the imaging shows that there is no progress in treatment, surgical procedures are used.
- After the mass has completely dissolved, the dentist performs the final filling of the root canals and then the tooth itself.
The therapeutic method of treatment is prescribed for small (up to 10 mm) cystic masses.
2. Treatment with a medical laser
Technology does not stand still, and today medicine offers several options for treating cysts with laser technology:
- canal sterilization using laser radiation - a special LED is inserted into the root canal, which emits a stream of light in a certain range. Such radiation kills pathogens, acts as well as traditional antiseptics, prevents the recurrence of the disease;
- laser surgery of the cystic mass envelope - in just a few seconds a stream of directed light radiation burns out the cyst envelope and vaporizes its dangerous contents.
3. Surgical method of treatment
Modern dentistry distinguishes three types of surgical treatment for cysts: cystotomy, cystectomy and hemisection.
- During a cystotomy, the doctor performs an excision of the mass, which causes the internal contents of the cyst to drain.
- A cystectomy removes the cyst as a whole - the doctor gradually separates its membrane from the neighboring tissues. After that a special tampon is inserted into the resulting cavity (if an open method of treatment is used), or the edges of the dissected area are artificially brought together to accelerate the healing process (closed method).
- During hemisection, not only the cystic capsule itself is removed, but also the root of the diseased tooth (sometimes with part of the crown). After that the tooth enamel is cleaned and a new denture is placed in the place of the defect.
Tooth cyst prevention
There are no universal methods by which you can protect your teeth from cystic lesions once and for all. However, following simple rules will help to minimize the risk of developing the disease:
- Attend regular preventive check-ups for early detection of possible problems.
- Follow all the doctor's recommendations, including oral and dental care.
- At the first signs of inflammatory processes in the mouth immediately consult a doctor, so that the problem does not develop into a chronic stage.
- Monitor the condition of previously treated teeth. If you have pain or discomfort, make an appointment with your dentist right away.